2016 ISSUE 1
TÍTLE: PROPOSAL FOR A COUNCIL DIRECTIVE ON A COMMON CONSOLIDATED CORPORATE TAX BASE AND ITS IMPACT ON EUROPEAN COOPERATIVE SOCIETIES
AUTHORS: Agustín ROMERO-CIVERA
ABSTRACT: The Proposal for a Council Directive on a Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base Tax (CCCTB) 2011/0058 (CNS) COM (2011) 121 final, does not explicitly aim convergence of legislation. Nevertheless this Directive has led us to analyze which is the general line towards any European convergence regarding taxation of cooperatives. The analysis begins with the review of the development that led to the proposed Directive, the different proposals, and how they came to an agreement, where the basic scheme is to assign each country's tax base in a proportional way, based on a weighting of three items: a) tangible and intangible assets, b) labor costs and number of employees, and c) sales. Once the tax base is assigned to each country, they would maintain their current tax rates. This proposal, is inspired no doubt by countries in North America with a federal structure, like USA and Canada, and does not satisfy some countries that have low tax rates or that would only receive a small tax base. Furthermore, the paper analyzes the main criticisms and refinements that have been published so far on the items included and excluded in the tax base.
TÍTLE: ANALYSIS OF THE AGGREGATE EXPENDITURE IN THE SPANISH PUBLIC SECTOR. SPECIAL COMMENT ON THE EXPENDITURE DISTRIBUTION BETWEEN STATE, REGIONS AND MUNICIPALITIES
AUTHORS: Andrea RODRIGUEZ PERIS
ABSTRACT: In the last ten years Spain has changed from enjoying a buoyant economic situation with high economic growth to suffering economic recession, what has generated an undoubtable deterioration of public finances. This paper analysis how the economic crisis which started in 2008 has influenced public sector expenditure in Spain. To this end, first, the GDP evolution is described, together with the aggregate public sector expenditure. It is made obvious that, notwithstanding budget cuts, the aggregate public sector expenditure never dropped below the level reached in 2008, which is the pre-crises maximum. Thereupon, a more detailed analysis of the different budgets configuring the aggregate Spanish public sector is performed. Special attention is devoted to the territorial structure of the State, that is, the budgets of the Central Government, the Regions and the municipalities. It is observed that the impact of the crisis is not been the same for all territorial levels, nor has been the intensity of the austerity policies.
TÍTLE: INVESTMENT OR WASTE? ANALYSIS OF INFRASTRUCTURE AND MAJOR EVENTS INVESTMENT IN SPAIN
AUTHORS: Daniel CATAlÁ PÉREZ
ABSTRACT: Public infrastructure investments and major international events can be, without doubt, great economic drivers that trigger an enhancement of citizens’ life quality. Nevertheless, in many cases they turn out to be disastrous investments, illustrating how public money can be wasted in huge amounts. As a result, unnecessary buildings and facilities are constructed which do not cover real needs of the population. Sometimes, the facilities are over dimensioned or have very high maintenance costs which had not been considered. Unfortunately, it is not uncommon that, as time passes, it is revealed that political corruption was involved in those investments promoting the waste in order to collect more money. Given the importance that great infrastructure investments and major international events have had in Spain in the recent past, and given its considerable impact on the generation of public debt, it is highly interesting to have a notion of the aggregated cost of just the most significant investments that turned out to be a waste of money. Furthermore, it is quite illustrative to compare this cost with the money spent to cover budgetary expenses that have great significance for citizens, such as health and education.
TÍTLE: THE ROLE OF THE UNIVERSITY LECTURER IN SPAIN. ARE THE TEACHING, THE RESEARCH AND THE TRANSFER ACTIVITIES EQUALLY WEIGHTED?
AUTHORS: Fernando GARCÍA
ABSTRACT: This paper introduces a number of reflection on the role to be performed in present time by university lecturers. In principle, it is supposed that this activity should be related with three pillars: teaching, research, and technology transfer. Nevertheless, following the analysis of the current legislation, it is made obvious that the legislation gives the researching task a predominant weight. This decision has necessarily a negative impact on the time devoted to the other two university tasks. It is also made evident that only that activity will be valued that achieves as a result the publication of a paper in a journal included in the Journal Citation Report. This fact suggests that the aim of the work and efforts of university lecturers in Spain is to improve the position of the Spanish Universities in the so-called Shanghai ranking.
TÍTLE: ANALYSIS OF EXTRA-BUDGETARY PAYMENTS IN THE MOST POPULATED MUNICIPALITIES IN THE PROVINCE OF VALENCIA, SPAIN
AUTHORS: María SEGURA BELMAR
ABSTRACT: One of the easiest options for Spanish local governments to spend the tax payers’ money discretionally regardless of what is approved in the yearly budget is using the so-called "reconocimientos extrajudiciales de crédito" (extrajudicial credit recognition). The use of this figure reflects a lack in the municipal management. This paper explains what is meant by "extrajudicial credit recognition", how it manages to avoid all the controls created by the budgetary accounting system and what problems does this figure create in order to achieve an efficient public administration. Then, the use made of this figure by the Local Governments of the most populated cities in the Province of Valencia is studied and conclusions are drawn.
TÍTLE: HOUSING VALUATION IN SPAIN. HOMOGENIZATION METHOD AND ALTERNATIVE METHODOLOGIES
AUTHORS: Jerónimo AZNAR, Francisco GUIJARRO
ABSTRACT: Currently, the most widely valuation method in Spain used for dwelling appraisals is the homogenization method. Nevertheless, this method has got some problems which should be solved and that are related, for example, with valuer’s subjectivity. This paper introduces alternative appraisal methodologies that solve some of those problems and make the work by appraisers and valuation companies easier, enhancing the quality of valuations, increasing the productivity and reducing costs. The use of one method or another depends on the data base available, as well as the problems arising with each methodology.